Fear Must Not Inhibit a Financial Strategy

Fear Must Not Inhibit a Financial Strategy

Too often, it persuades investors to make questionable moves.

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BY GREG OLIVER

Fear affects investors in two distinct ways. Every so often, a bulletin, headline, or sustained economic or market trend will scare them and make them question their investing approach. If they overreact to it, they may sell low now and buy high later – or in the worst-case scenario, they derail their whole investing and retirement planning strategy.

Besides the fear of potential market shocks, there is also another fear worth noting – the fear of being too involved in the market. People with this worry are often superb savers, but reluctant investors. They amass large bank accounts, yet their aversion to investing in equities may hurt them in the long run.

Impulsive investment decisions tend to carry a cost. People who jump in and out of investment sectors or classes tend to pay a price for it. A statistic hints at how much: across the 20 years ending on December 31, 2015, the S&P 500 returned an average of 8.91% per year, but the average equity investor’s portfolio returned just 4.67% annually. Fixed-income investors also failed to beat a key benchmark: in this same period, the Barclays Aggregate Bond Index advanced an average of 5.34% a year, but the average fixed-income investor realized an annual return of only 0.51%.1

This data was compiled by DALBAR, a highly respected investment research firm, which has studied the behavior of individual investors since the mid-1980s. The numbers partly reflect the behavior of the typical individual investor who loses patience and tries to time the market. A hypothetical “average” investor who merely bought and held, with an equity or fixed-income portfolio merely copying the components of the above benchmarks, would have been better off across those 20 years. In monetary terms, the sustained difference in performance could have meant a difference of hundreds of thousands of dollars in earnings for an investor across a lifetime, given compounding.1

Other people are held back by their anxiety about investing. They become great savers, steadily building six-figure cash positions in enormous savings or checking accounts – but they never sufficiently invest their money.

That confusion comes with a severe potential downside. Just how much interest are their deposit accounts earning? Right now, almost nothing. If they invested more of the money they were saving into equities – or some kind of investment vehicle with the potential to outrun inflation – those invested dollars could grow and compound over time to a degree that idle cash does not.

A large emergency fund is a great thing to have, but it can be argued that a tax-advantaged retirement fund of invested dollars is a better thing to have. After all, who retires on cash savings alone? Tomorrow’s retirees will live mainly on the earnings generated from the investment of the dollars they have saved over the decades. Seen one way, a focus on cash is financially nearsighted; it ignores the possibility that even greater abundance may be realized through its sustained investment.

Fear dissuades some people from sticking with a long-term financial strategy and discourages other people from developing one. Patience and knowledge can help investors contend with the fears that may risk hurting their retirement saving prospects.

Citations.
1 – zacksim.com/heres-investors-underperform-market/ [5/22/17]

Avoiding the Money Pitfalls of Past Generations
Take these financial lessons to heart.

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BY GREG OLIVER

You have a chance to manage your money better than previous generations have. Some crucial financial steps may help you do just that.

Live below your means and refrain from living on margin. How much do you save per month? Generations ago, Americans routinely saved 10% or more of what they made, either depositing those savings or investing them. This kind of thriftiness is still found elsewhere in the world. Today, the average euro area household saves more than 12% of its earnings, and the current personal savings rate in Mexico is 20.6%.1

In 1975, the U.S. personal savings rate hit an all-time peak of 17.0%; it has been below 4% since June. Easy credit is one culprit; the tendency to overspend in a strong economy is another. Remember to pay yourself first, not credit card companies. Collect experiences rather than possessions.1

Recognize that there is no “sure thing” investment. Investors found that out in 2000 and 2007 when things shifted in the financial and housing markets. What returns 15-20% a year from now may not next year or three years on. Diversification matters: you never know what asset class might soar or plummet in the future, and allocating your assets across different investment types gives you the potential to reduce overall portfolio risk.

Plan for a 30-year retirement. According to Social Security estimates, the average 65-year-old man is currently projected to live until age 84, and the average 65-year-old woman, to age 87. With advances in health care, living to 95 may become the norm for the average 35-year-old.2

Plan for your retirement first, your children’s college education second. Some baby boomers did the inverse, and some who did wonder if they made the right decision for their futures. College students can work and receive financial aid; for senior citizens, it is a different story.

Switch jobs for better pay. Generations ago, people tended to stay at the same job for several years or longer, whether their prospects were promising or not. If a better job lures you, do not be ashamed to leave your current employer for it – you may gain, financially. Payroll processing giant ADP found recently that a job change resulted in an average pay increase of 4.5% for a full-time worker.3

Congratulate yourself on the good moves you have made, and plan more. Make another good move and chat with a financial professional about the ways you can continue to plan for a prosperous future.

Citations.
1 – tradingeconomics.com/united-states/personal-savings [12/14/17]
2 – ssa.gov/planners/lifeexpectancy.html [12/14/17]
3 – theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/02/job-switchers-raise/460044/ [2/8/16]

Should We Reconsider What “Retirement” Means?

Should We Reconsider What “Retirement” Means?

The notion that we separate from work in our sixties may have to go.

BY GREG OLIVER

An executive transitions into a consulting role at age 62 and stops working altogether at 65; then, he becomes a buyer for a church network at 69. A corporate IT professional decides to conclude her career at age 58; she serves as a city council member in her sixties, then opens an art studio at 70.

Are these people retired? Not by the old definition of the word. Our definition of “retirement” is changing. Retirement is now a time of activity and opportunity.

Generations ago, Americans never retired – at least not voluntarily. American life was either agrarian or industrialized, and people toiled until they died or physically broke down. Their “social security” was their children. Society had a low opinion of able-bodied adults who preferred leisure to work.

German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck often gets credit for “inventing” the idea of retirement. In the late 1800s, the German government set up the first pension plan for those 65 and older. (Life expectancy was around 45 at the time.) When our Social Security program began in 1935, it defined 65 as the U.S. retirement age; back then, the average American lived about 62 years. Social Security was perceived as a reward given to seniors during the final years of their lives, a financial compliment for their hard work.1

After World War II, the concept of retirement changed. The model American worker was now the “organization man” destined to spend decades at one large company, taken care of by his (or her) employer in a way many people would welcome today. Americans began to associate retirement with pleasure and leisure.

By the 1970s, the definition of retirement had become rigid. You retired in your early sixties, because your best years were behind you and it was time to go. You died at about 72 or 75 (depending on your gender). In between, you relaxed. You lived comfortably on an employee pension and Social Security checks, and the risk of outliving your money was low. If you lived to 81 or 82, that was a good run. Turning 90 was remarkable.

Today, baby boomers cannot settle for these kinds of retirement assumptions. This is partly due to economic uncertainty and partly due to ambition. Retirement planning today is all about self-reliance, and to die at 65 today is to die young with the potential of one’s “second act” unfulfilled.

One factor has altered our view of retirement more than any other. That factor is the increase in longevity. When Social Security started, retirement was seen as the quiet final years of life; by the 1960s, it was seen as an extended vacation lasting 10-15 years; and now, it is seen as a decades-long window of opportunity.

Working past 70 may soon become common. Some baby boomers will need to do it, but others will simply want to do it. Whether by choice or chance, some will retire briefly and work again; others will rotate between periods of leisure and work for as long as they can. Working full time or part time not only generates income, it also helps to preserve invested retirement assets, giving them more years to potentially compound. Another year on the job also means one less year of retirement to fund.

Perhaps we should see retirement foremost as a time of change – a time of changing what we want to do with our lives. According to the actuaries at the Social Security Administration, the average 65-year-old has about 20 years to pursue his or her interests. Planning for change may be the most responsive move we can make for the future.2

GREG OLIVER
76767867867896986p98689//OHIO/USA
PLANNER 65765765757-1

Citations.
1 – dailynews.com/2017/03/24/successful-aging-im-65-and-ok-with-it/ [3/24/17]
2 – ssa.gov/planners/lifeexpectancy.html [11/21/17]

Understanding Inherited IRAs

Understanding Inherited IRAs
What beneficiaries need to know and consider.

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BY GREG OLIVER

At first glance, the rules surrounding inherited IRAs are complex. Here are some questions (and potential answers) to consider if you have inherited one or may in the future.

Who was the original IRA owner? If the original owner was your spouse, you have a fundamental choice to make. You can roll over your late spouse’s IRA into an IRA you own, or you can treat it as an inherited IRA. If the original owner was not your spouse, you must treat the IRA for which you are named beneficiary as an inherited IRA.1,2

What kind of IRA is it? It will either be a traditional IRA funded with pre-tax contributions or a Roth IRA funded with post-tax contributions.

Do you want to let the money grow and take RMDs or cash it all out now? In the case of a small IRA, many heirs just want to cash out – it seems bothersome to schedule tiny withdrawals out of the IRA across the remainder of their lifetimes. Money coming out of an inherited traditional IRA is taxable income, however – and if a lump sum is taken, the tax impact could be notable.1

If the IRA is substantial, there is real merit in scheduling Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) instead. This gives some of the still-invested IRA balance additional years to grow and compound. Any future growth will be tax deferred (traditional IRA) or tax free (Roth IRA).1

Internal Revenue Service rules say that RMDs from inherited IRAs must begin by the end of the year following the year in which the original IRA owner died. These RMDs are required even for inherited Roth IRAs. Each RMD is considered regular, taxable income.1,2

One asterisk is worth noting regarding inherited traditional IRAs. If the original IRA owner died on or after the date at which RMDs are required for that IRA, then you can schedule RMDs during the remainder of your lifetime using tables in I.R.S. Publication 590 as a guide. If the original IRA owner died before that date, you have a choice of scheduling RMDs over a lifetime or withdrawing the whole IRA balance by the end of the 5th year following the year of the original owner’s death.2,3

What is the IRA’s basis? In other words, what is the amount on which the original IRA owner paid taxes? For an inherited traditional IRA, the basis equals the amount of all non-deductible contributions that the original IRA owner made. For an inherited Roth IRA, the basis equals the amount of total contributions made by the original owner.4

When you know the basis, you can figure out the percentage of an RMD from an inherited traditional IRA that is subject to tax. RMDs out of inherited Roth IRAs are not normally taxed, but if the inherited Roth IRA is less than five years old, you must determine the basis. The Roth IRA’s basis will be distributed to you first, then the Roth IRA’s earnings, and only the earnings will be taxed. Earnings can be withdrawn tax free from an inherited Roth IRA starting on the first day of the fifth taxable year after the year the Roth IRA was first created.1,4

Can you withdraw more than the RMD amount from an inherited IRA each year? Certainly, but keep in mind that a large, lump-sum payout could leave you in a higher tax bracket.1

What happens when you inherit an inherited IRA? As a secondary beneficiary to that IRA, you assume the RMD schedule of the person who was the primary beneficiary.1

Can you convert an inherited traditional IRA into a Roth IRA? The I.R.S. forbids this – with one exception. A spousal IRA heir who rolls over an inherited IRA balance into their own traditional IRA can arrange a Roth conversion.3

If you have inherited an IRA, talk with a financial professional. That conversation may help you determine a tax-efficient way to manage and withdraw these assets.

GREG OLIVER
MILFORD,OHIO ,USA
USA
ADVISER
OLIVER, GREG
Cincinnati , OHIO
Citations.
1 – forbes.com/sites/ashleaebeling/2017/07/10/what-to-do-if-you-inherit-an-ira/ [7/10/17]
2 – irs.gov/retirement-plans/required-minimum-distributions-for-ira-beneficiaries [8/17/17]
3 – fool.com/retirement/iras/2017/06/01/5-inherited-ira-rules-you-should-know-by-heart.aspx [6/1/17]
4 – finance.zacks.com/basis-inherited-iras-2711.html [10/12/17]

On November 5, Daylight Saving Time ends for 2017

On November 5, Daylight Saving Time ends for 2017.

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BY GREG OLIVER

Spring forward, fall back. You know the saying. According to the calendar, the date for falling back is just ahead of us. On November 5, Daylight Saving Time ends for 2017.

So, set your clock (and your wake-up alarm) back one hour the night of November 4 and enjoy an extra hour of sleep. Daylight Saving Time returns next March.